Michael Chertoff was the second Secretary of Homeland Security from 2005–2009. He previously served at a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit, as a federal prosecutor, as Assistant U.S. Attorney General, and as United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey—one of only two U.S. Attorneys who was not replaced when the Clinton administration took office in 1993. Chertoff is the author of Homeland Security: Assessing the First Five Years. He is today Executive Chairman and Co-founder of The Chertoff Group, a security consulting company, and senior of counsel to the firm of Covington and Burling.